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Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77550, USA.
These results indicate that the response of net muscle protein synthesis to consumption of an EAC solution immediately before resistance exercise is greater than that when the solution is consumed after exercise, primarily because of an increase in muscle protein synthesis as a result of increased delivery of amino acids to the leg.
Updated over a year ago:
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance.
The following key points summarize the current energy, nutrient, and fluid recommendations for active adults and competitive athletes. These general recommendations can be adjusted by sports nutrition experts to accommodate the unique concerns of individual athletes regarding health, sports, nutrient needs, food preferences, and body weight and body composition goals.
* Athletes need to consume adequate energy during periods of high-intensity and/or long-duration training to maintain body weight and health and maximize training effects. Low energy intakes can result in loss of muscle mass; menstrual dysfunction; loss of or failure to gain bone density; an increased risk of fatigue, injury, and illness; and a prolonged recovery process.
* Body weight and composition should not be used as the sole criterion for participation in sports; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Optimal body fat levels depend on the sex, age, and heredity of the athlete and may be sport-specific. Body fat assessment techniques have inherent variability and limitations. Preferably, weight loss (fat loss) should take place during the off-season or begin before the competitive season and involve a qualified sports dietitian.
* Carbohydrate recommendations for athletes range from 6 to 10 g·kg-1 body weight·d-1 (2.7-4.5 g·lb-1 body weight·d-1). Carbohydrates maintain blood glucose levels during exercise and replace muscle glycogen. The amount required depends on the athlete's total daily energy expenditure, type of sport, sex, and environmental conditions.
* Protein recommendations for endurance and strength-trained athletes range from 1.2 to 1.7 g·kg-1 body weight·d-1 (0.5-0.8 g·lb-1 body weight·d-1). These recommended protein intakes can generally be met through diet alone, without the use of protein or amino acid supplements. Energy intake sufficient to maintain body weight is necessary for optimal protein use and performance.
* Fat intake should range from 20% to 35% of total energy intake. Consuming ≤20% of energy from fat does not benefit performance. Fat, which is a source of energy, fat-soluble vitamins, and essential fatty acids, is important in the diets of athletes. High-fat diets are not recommended for athletes.
* Athletes who restrict energy intake or use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet, or consume high- or low-carbohydrate diets of low micronutrient density are at greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Athletes should consume diets that provide at least the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for all micronutrients.
* Dehydration (water deficit in excess of 2-3% body mass) decreases exercise performance; thus, adequate fluid intake before, during, and after exercise is important for health and optimal performance. The goal of drinking is to prevent dehydration from occurring during exercise and individuals should not drink in excess of sweating rate. After exercise, approximately 16-24 oz (450-675 mL) of fluid for every pound (0.5 kg) of body weight lost during exercise.
* Before exercise, a meal or snack should provide sufficient fluid to maintain hydration, be relatively low in fat and fiber to facilitate gastric emptying and minimize gastrointestinal distress, be relatively high in carbohydrate to maximize maintenance of blood glucose, be moderate in protein, be composed of familiar foods, and be well tolerated by the athlete.
* During exercise, primary goals for nutrient consumption are to replace fluid losses and provide carbohydrates (approximately 30-60 g·h-1) for maintenance of blood glucose levels. These nutrition guidelines are especially important for endurance events lasting longer than an hour when the athlete has not consumed adequate food or fluid before exercise or when the athlete is exercising in an extreme environment (heat, cold, or high altitude).
* After exercise, dietary goals are to provide adequate fluids, electrolytes, energy, and carbohydrates to replace muscle glycogen and ensure rapid recovery. A carbohydrate intake of approximately 1.0-1.5 g·kg-1 body weight (0.5-0.7 g·lb-1) during the first 30 min and again every 2 h for 4-6 h will be adequate to replace glycogen stores. Protein consumed after exercise will provide amino acids for building and repair of muscle tissue.
* In general, no vitamin and mineral supplements are required if an athlete is consuming adequate energy from a variety of foods to maintain body weight. Supplementation recommendations unrelated to exercise, such as folic acid for women of childbearing potential, should be followed. A multivitamin/mineral supplement may be appropriate if an athlete is dieting, habitually eliminating foods or food groups, is ill or recovering from injury, or has a specific micronutrient deficiency. Single-nutrient supplements may be appropriate for a specific medical or nutritional reason (e.g., iron supplements to correct iron deficiency anemia).
* Athletes should be counseled regarding the appropriate use of ergogenic aids. Such products should only be used after careful evaluation for safety, efficacy, potency, and legality.
* Vegetarian athletes may be at risk for low intakes of energy, protein, fat, and key micronutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, zinc, and vitamin B12. Consultation with a sports dietitian is recommended to avoid these nutrition problems.
Picking the correct kind, sum, and timing of admission of nourishments, liquids and supplements can encourage dynamic grown-ups and aggressive competitors perform taking care of business. To enable a competitor to achieve crest execution, dietitians work with competitors to get ready for:
sufficient vitality and supplements from sustenance
enough liquids and electrolytes to keep the body hydrated
the correct adjust of supplements from nourishments and supplements, if necessary.
It is the situation of Dietitians of Canada, together with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics et the American College of Sports Medicine, that the execution of, and recuperation from, brandishing exercises are upgraded by well-picked nourishment methodologies. The joint Position Paper gives rules to the proper sort, sum and timing of admission of sustenance, liquids and dietary supplements to advance ideal wellbeing and game execution crosswise over various situations of preparing and aggressive game.
Competitors ought to be alluded to an enlisted dietitian to suit the one of a kind issues of individual competitors in regards to wellbeing, supplement needs, execution objectives, body qualities (i.e., body estimate, shape, development, and sythesis), pragmatic difficulties and nourishment inclinations.
Read the rules exhibited in the position paper to take in more about:
modifying vitality admission to help ideal body capacity and structure
what to eat and drink previously, amid, and after exercise
starch, protein and fat admissions for enhanced execution and enhance recuperation time
the most effective method to avert lack of hydration
techniques to enhance perseverance
protected and suitable utilization of dietary supplements and ergogenic (execution upgrading) helps
preparing in uncommon conditions, for example, high height and outrageous temperatures