Fat - Health and Fitness India, Knowledge and Experience from Worldwide

Diet of children with type 1 diabetes should have age appropriate calories with normal proportions of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Experts said only type 2 diabetes can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle, exercise and avoiding obesity.

While type 1 diabetes can be well managed and detected early, the experts all unanimously called for greater awareness levels.


Improving pre-pregnancy health critical to averting childhood obesity: New Study


"The Law of 3's" for Dieting and Success

"Obesity can turn body fat toxic"


"Obesity can trigger inflammation in the fat cells found just below the skin, creating an environment that has been linked with the development of both diabetes and heart disease, two new studies indicate.

The findings suggest that people need to worry about all types of body fat, not just the deeply embedded fat that earlier work had focused on. But the new work also hints that some face a higher risk than others."

After 1 hour of sitting, the production of enzymes that burn fat declines by as much as 90%. Extended sitting slows the body's metabolism affecting things like (good cholesterol) HDL levels in our bodies. 


Scientists have determined that after an hour or more of sitting, the production of enzymes that burn fat in the body declines by as much as 90 percent. Extended sitting, they add, slows the body’s metabolism of glucose and lowers the levels of good (HDL) cholesterol in the blood.


The instant gratification and the pleasure derived from consuming excessive chocolate and deep-fried foods can lead way to a double-edged sword of negative consequences ranging from weight gain to feelings of low self-esteem. According to a new study, combating this type of self-destructive behavior may be achieved simply by making a person feel sad. - Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. - March 11, 2014 


How Fat Cells Work


by Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D.

An excerpt:

Losing Weight and Losing Fat

Your weight is determined by the rate at which you store energy from the food that you eat, and the rate at which you use that energy. Remember that as your body breaks down fat, the number of fat cells remains the same; each fat cell simply gets smaller.

Most experts agree that the way to maintain a healthy weight is:

  • Eat a balanced diet - appropriate amounts of carbohydrates, fat and protein
  • Do not eat excessively - for most people, a diet of 1,500 to 2,000 calories a day is sufficient to maintain a healthy weight
  • Exercise regularly

From http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/fitness/Why-thigh-gap-is-so-important-to-women/articleshow/22091648.cms

"Starving won't help losing fat from regions like the butt and thigh."

"Each individual is prone to fat accumulation in a different area. This also happens to be the last area from where fat will get burned, so we don't encourage members to work out specific areas."

Dr Purwa Duggal, a nutritionist with Fortis Hospital, says stubborn fat in areas such as thighs, hips, butt etc. are influenced by oestrogen. Prolonged starvation does not necessarily mean burning fat. It may initially cause muscle wasting or utilisation of glycogen stores.

Catecholamines, which are fight or flight hormones produced in the body in response to stress, are required to burn fat. "Blood flow to stubborn fat areas is usually very poor, as a result, the catecholamines are unable to reach the area to mobilise the fat. Even if the fat is mobilised, while it continues to be in the blood stream, it may get re-deposited in the original areas," she adds. However, both she and macrobiotic nutritionist Shonali Sabherwal agree that a controlled diet — excluding unhealthy fats, processed food and sugars — complimented with focussed exercise, under supervision, may aid in developing the desired muscle tone over time.

A highly valuable discussion related to FAT: Science journalist, Gary Taubes, joins Dr Oz, Dr Dean Ornish, and American Heart Association's Dr Barbara Howard. (for very short summary, watch from 49:30)

Read from posts of Yale University Director David Katz, MD, MPH on diet, calories, fat, weight, exercise and health to also help people in India with valuable inputs. 



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  • Shivering as a Form of Exercise http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/02/05/shivering-as-a-form-of-exe...

  • Too Much Protein, Eaten Along With Fat, May Lead To Insulin Resistance 

    From http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090407130905.htm 

    "Insulin resistance occurred in animals with a diet high in the branched-chain amino acids, but only if they were ingested along with a high level of fat in the diet," Newgard said. Because obese humans tend to ingest high-fat diets, the combination of high-BCAA and high-fat intake might contribute to insulin resistance in obese humans, but additional studies are needed. BCAAs comprise as much as 25 percent of amino acids in dietary protein, and are particularly enriched in diets high in animal (meat) proteins.

    "I want to be clear that our animal data suggest that there is nothing wrong with obtaining protein from sources that are high in branched-chain amino acids, as long as you are not eating beyond what your energy needs are," said Newgard, who is a professor of pharmacology and cancer biology and professor of medicine at Duke. "If you add a lot of unneeded protein to a fatty diet, perhaps that's where you get into problems. The ancient Greeks were right: everything in moderation."

    Insulin resistance happens when insulin, released by the beta cells in the pancreas, doesn't work normally to stimulate glucose uptake into tissues.

  • NIH study shows how insulin stimulates fat cells to take in glucose 

    From http://www.nih.gov/news/health/sep2010/nichd-07.htm 

    Using high-resolution microscopy, researchers at the National Institutes of Health have shown how insulin prompts fat cells to take in glucose in a rat model. The findings were reported in the Sept. 8 issue of the journal Cell Metabolism.

    Glucose, a simple sugar, provides energy for cell functions. After food is digested, glucose is released into the bloodstream. In response, the pancreas secretes insulin, which directs the muscle and fat cells to take in glucose. Cells obtain energy from glucose or convert it to fat for long-term storage. 

    Like a key fits into a lock, insulin binds to receptors on the cell's surface, causing GLUT4 molecules to come to the cell's surface. As their name implies, glucose transporter proteins act as vehicles to ferry glucose inside the cell. 

    To get detailed images of how GLUT4 is transported and moves through the cell membrane, the researchers used high-resolution imaging to observe GLUT4 that had been tagged with a fluorescent dye.

    The researchers then observed fat cells suspended in a neutral liquid and later soaked the cells in an insulin solution, to determine the activity of GLUT4 in the absence of insulin and in its presence.

    In the neutral liquid, the researchers found that individual molecules of GLUT4 as well as GLUT4 clusters were distributed across the cell membrane in equal numbers. Inside the cell, GLUT4 was contained in balloon-like structures known as vesicles. The vesicles transported GLUT4 to the cell membrane and merged with the membrane, a process known as fusion.

    After fusion, the individual molecules of GLUT4 are the first to enter the cell membrane, moving at a continuous but relatively infrequent rate. The researchers termed this process fusion with release.

    When exposed to insulin, however, the rate of total GLUT4 entry into the cell membrane peaked, quadrupling within three minutes. The researchers saw a dramatic rise in fusion with release — 60 times more often on cells exposed to insulin than on cells not exposed to insulin.

    After exposure to insulin, a complex sequence occurred, with GLUT4 shifting from clusters to individual GLUT4 molecules. Based on the total amount of glucose the cells took in, the researchers deduced that glucose was taken into the cell by individual GLUT4 molecules as well as by clustered GLUT4. The researchers also noted that after four minutes, entry of GLUT4 into the cell membrane started to decrease, dropping to levels observed in the neutral liquid in 10 to 15 minutes.

  • From http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/weight-loss/tips/diet-tips/how-to-lo...

    Make your fat burn fat.

    Seriously: Your flab can help you shed pounds. How? Just as there's more than one kind of fat in food, there's more than one type in your body. White fat is the bad stuff you want to zap. But a second kind, brown fat, actually torches calories. "Up to 80 percent of adults have brown fat deposits in their bodies," says Aaron M. Cypess, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine at the Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School. This good fat is powerful because it's packed with mitochondria, the parts of cells that generate heat. When activated, as little as two ounces of brown fat can gobble up as much as 20 percent of your body's calories.

    Exercise is one of the best ways to get your brown fat in gear. In a study, scientists at Harvard's Dana-Farber Cancer Institute discovered that working out releases a hormone called irisin, which converts white fat to brown. Exercise for a half hour at least five days a week to turn up the burn.


    Shakti Saran

  • Fat in red meat and butter may be bad for your brain http://www.dnaindia.com/health/report_fat-in-red-meat-and-butter-ma...

  • "Obesity can turn body fat toxic"  


    "Obesity can trigger inflammation in the fat cells found just below the skin, creating an environment that has been linked with the development of both diabetes and heart disease, two new studies indicate.

    The findings suggest that people need to worry about all types of body fat, not just the deeply embedded fat that earlier work had focused on. But the new work also hints that some face a higher risk than others."

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