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Blood Transfusions for People with Cancer


Cancer is a disease of the cells which are the basic building blocks. Cancerous cells are abnormal cells that multiply at a rapid rate and leads to several types of problems in the body. These abnormal cells do not function as they should and start replacing other normal cells in the body. Thanks to the research as cancer can be treated in different ways depending upon the type, size, location and degree of spread. Some of the treatment includes surgically removing the abnormal cells or adjoining tissues in the human body and use of radiotherapy in which high intensity x-rays are used to slow down the growth of cancerous cells.

All the patients suffering from cancer require blood transfusions due to loss of blood during surgery. They also are in great need of blood to compensate the effects of chemotherapy drugs. These drugs affect fast-dividing normal cells and cancerous cells. The process of chemotherapy also affects bone marrow which is responsible for the production of blood cell. As a result, people suffering from cancer become incapable to produce new blood cells and replace destroyed blood cells. This cycle leads to loss of blood cell counts and require transfusion of red blood cells or platelets. The process of blood transfusion proves useful to manage the effects of low blood cells and helps to continue the process of treating cancer.

Blood transfusion can be made possible by supplying blood or part of it into the vein of a person with the help of an intravenous (IV) line. It can be given to an individual incapable to produce sufficient blood cells or bleeding. This process save millions of lives every year.

Most of the people donate whole blood which can be called as a unit or pint of blood that equals to around 450 millilitres or 16.7 ounces. While the reality lies in the fact that whole blood is used rarely for a transfusion and is divided into red blood cells, plasma or platelets. Each component of blood does a different job. Plasma can be divided into certain types of proteins or clotting factors. This helps to meet the requirement of the doctors and get maximum benefit from the donated blood.

Cancer patients require blood transfusions due to several reasons.

Cancer leads to internal bleeding that leads to anaemia due to lack of red blood cells. All the blood cells are formed in the bone marrow and the cancerous cells in the bone marrow spread to other parts of the human body and affect normal blood-making cells which lead to fall in   blood counts.

Even people who suffered from cancer for a shorter period of time feels anemic.Such type of anaemia occurs due to long term medical problems affecting the production of RBC.

All types of treatment of cancer necessitate blood transfusions due to the given reasons:

Surgery: The complete surgical process used for the treatment of cancer leads to loss of blood and require RBC or platelet transfusions.

Chemotherapy: The drugs used for chemotherapy affects bone marrow cells. It leads to fall in the count of blood cells and gave rise to life-threatening infections or excessive bleeding.

Use of Radiation: The high intensity rays when used for the treatment of larger bone area, it affects bone marrow and leads to fall in the blood cell counts.

Bone marrow transplant (BMT): Peripheral blood stem cell transplant or BMT need to undergo from chemotherapy or radiation therapy which damage the blood-producing cells in the bone marrow. Such patients require blood transfusions as they have lower number of blood cell counts.

All this indicates that there is a rise in the need of blood transfusions in individual cancer patients due to increase in the chemotherapy cycles.

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Glycemic Index (GI)

From :

The glycemic index, or glycaemic index, (GI) provides a measure of how quickly blood sugar levels (i.e., levels of glucose in the blood) rise after eating a particular type of food. The effects that different foods have on blood sugar levels vary considerably. The glycemic index estimates how much each gram of available carbohydrate total carbohydrate minus fiber) in a food raises a person's blood glucose level following consumption of the food, relative to consumption of pure glucose. Glucose has a glycemic index of 100.

A practical limitation of the glycemic index is that it does not take into account the amount of carbohydrate actually consumed. A related measure, the glycemic load, factors this in by multiplying the glycemic index of the food in question by the carbohydrate content of the actual serving.

From :

Compared with an isocaloric low-GI meal, a high-GI meal decreased plasma glucose, increased hunger, and selectively stimulated brain regions associated with reward and craving in the late postprandial period, which is a time with special significance to eating behavior at the next meal.


Table 1

The average GI of 62 common foods derived from multiple studies by different laboratories

High-carbohydrate foods Breakfast cereals Fruit and fruit products Vegetables
White wheat bread* 75 ± 2 Cornflakes 81 ± 6 Apple, raw 36 ± 2 Potato, boiled 78 ± 4
Whole wheat/whole meal bread 74 ± 2 Wheat flake biscuits 69 ± 2 Orange, raw 43 ± 3 Potato, instant mash 87 ± 3
Specialty grain bread 53 ± 2 Porridge, rolled oats 55 ± 2 Banana, raw 51 ± 3 Potato, french fries 63 ± 5
Unleavened wheat bread 70 ± 5 Instant oat porridge 79 ± 3 Pineapple, raw 59 ± 8 Carrots, boiled 39 ± 4
Wheat roti 62 ± 3 Rice porridge/congee 78 ± 9 Mango, raw 51 ± 5 Sweet potato, boiled 63 ± 6
Chapatti 52 ± 4 Millet porridge 67 ± 5 Watermelon, raw 76 ± 4 Pumpkin, boiled 64 ± 7
Corn tortilla 46 ± 4 Muesli 57 ± 2 Dates, raw 42 ± 4 Plantain/green banana 55 ± 6
White rice, boiled* 73 ± 4 Peaches, canned 43 ± 5 Taro, boiled 53 ± 2
Brown rice, boiled 68 ± 4 Strawberry jam/jelly 49 ± 3 Vegetable soup 48 ± 5
Barley 28 ± 2 Apple juice 41 ± 2
Sweet corn 52 ± 5 Orange juice 50 ± 2
Spaghetti, white 49 ± 2
Spaghetti, whole meal 48 ± 5
Rice noodles 53 ± 7
Udon noodles 55 ± 7
Couscous 65 ± 4
Dairy products and alternatives Legumes Snack products Sugars
Milk, full fat 39 ± 3 Chickpeas 28 ± 9 Chocolate 40 ± 3 Fructose 15 ± 4
Milk, skim 37 ± 4 Kidney beans 24 ± 4 Popcorn 65 ± 5 Sucrose 65 ± 4
Ice cream 51 ± 3 Lentils 32 ± 5 Potato crisps 56 ± 3 Glucose 103 ± 3
Yogurt, fruit 41 ± 2 Soya beans 16 ± 1 Soft drink/soda 59 ± 3 Honey 61 ± 3
Soy milk 34 ± 4 Rice crackers/crisps 87 ± 2
Rice milk 86 ± 7

Data are means ± SEM.

*Low-GI varieties were also identified.
†Average of all available data.

Glycemic index and glycemic load offer information about how foods affect blood sugar and insulin. The lower a food's glycemic index or glycemic load, the less it affects blood sugar and insulin levels. Here you'll find a list of the glycemic index and glycemic load for more than 100 common foods.

FOOD Glycemic index (glucose = 100) Serving size (grams) Glycemic load per serving
Banana cake, made with sugar 47 60 14
Banana cake, made without sugar 55 60 12
Sponge cake, plain 46 63 17
Vanilla cake made from packet mix with vanilla frosting (Betty Crocker) 42 111 24
Apple, made with sugar 44 60 13
Apple, made without sugar 48 60 9
Waffles, Aunt Jemima (Quaker Oats) 76 35 10
Bagel, white, frozen 72 70 25
Baguette, white, plain 95 30 15
Coarse barley bread, 75-80% kernels, average 34 30 7
Hamburger bun 61 30 9
Kaiser roll 73 30 12
Pumpernickel bread 56 30 7
50% cracked wheat kernel bread 58 30 12
White wheat flour bread 71 30 10
Wonder™ bread, average 73 30 10
Whole wheat bread, average 71 30 9
100% Whole Grain™ bread (Natural Ovens) 51 30 7
Pita bread, white 68 30 10
Corn tortilla 52 50 12
Wheat tortilla 30 50 8
Coca Cola®, average 63 250 mL 16
Fanta®, orange soft drink 68 250 mL 23
Lucozade®, original (sparkling glucose drink) 95±10 250 mL 40
Apple juice, unsweetened, average 44 250 mL 30
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray®) 68 250 mL 24
Gatorade 78 250 mL 12
Orange juice, unsweetened 50 250 mL 12
Tomato juice, canned 38 250 mL 4
All-Bran™, average 55 30 12
Coco Pops™, average 77 30 20
Cornflakes™, average 93 30 23
Cream of Wheat™ (Nabisco) 66 250 17
Cream of Wheat™, Instant (Nabisco) 74 250 22
Grapenuts™, average 75 30 16
Muesli, average 66 30 16
Oatmeal, average 55 250 13
Instant oatmeal, average 83 250 30
Puffed wheat, average 80 30 17
Raisin Bran™ (Kellogg's) 61 30 12
Special K™ (Kellogg's) 69 30 14
Pearled barley, average 28 150 12
Sweet corn on the cob, average 60 150 20
Couscous, average 65 150 9
Quinoa 53 150 13
White rice, average 89 150 43
Quick cooking white basmati 67 150 28
Brown rice, average 50 150 16
Converted, white rice (Uncle Ben's®) 38 150 14
Whole wheat kernels, average 30 50 11
Bulgur, average 48 150 12
Graham crackers 74 25 14
Vanilla wafers 77 25 14
Shortbread 64 25 10
Rice cakes, average 82 25 17
Rye crisps, average 64 25 11
Soda crackers 74 25 12
Ice cream, regular 57 50 6
Ice cream, premium 38 50 3
Milk, full fat 41 250mL 5
Milk, skim 32 250 mL 4
Reduced-fat yogurt with fruit, average 33 200 11
Apple, average 39 120 6
Banana, ripe 62 120 16
Dates, dried 42 60 18
Grapefruit 25 120 3
Grapes, average 59 120 11
Orange, average 40 120 4
Peach, average 42 120 5
Peach, canned in light syrup 40 120 5
Pear, average 38 120 4
Pear, canned in pear juice 43 120 5
Prunes, pitted 29 60 10
Raisins 64 60 28
Watermelon 72 120 4
Baked beans, average 40 150 6
Blackeye peas, average 33 150 10
Black beans 30 150 7
Chickpeas, average 10 150 3
Chickpeas, canned in brine 38 150 9
Navy beans, average 31 150 9
Kidney beans, average 29 150 7
Lentils, average 29 150 5
Soy beans, average 15 150 1
Cashews, salted 27 50 3
Peanuts, average 7 50 0
Fettucini, average 32 180 15
Macaroni, average 47 180 23
Macaroni and Cheese (Kraft) 64 180 32
Spaghetti, white, boiled, average 46 180 22
Spaghetti, white, boiled 20 min, average 58 180 26
Spaghetti, wholemeal, boiled, average 42 180 17
Corn chips, plain, salted, average 42 50 11
Fruit Roll-Ups® 99 30 24
M & M's®, peanut 33 30 6
Microwave popcorn, plain, average 55 20 6
Potato chips, average 51 50 12
Pretzels, oven-baked 83 30 16
Snickers Bar® 51 60 18
Green peas, average 51 80 4
Carrots, average 35 80 2
Parsnips 52 80 4
Baked russet potato, average 111 150 33
Boiled white potato, average 82 150 21
Instant mashed potato, average 87 150 17
Sweet potato, average 70 150 22
Yam, average 54 150 20
Hummus (chickpea salad dip) 6 30 0
Chicken nuggets, frozen, reheated in microwave oven 5 min 46 100 7
Pizza, plain baked dough, served with parmesan cheese and tomato sauce 80 100 22
Pizza, Super Supreme (Pizza Hut) 36 100 9
Honey, average 61 25 12

A behavioral intervention incorporating specific glycemic index goals improves dietary quality, weight control and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

From : 

An intervention including a specific goal to consume six to eight servings of LGI foods daily can improve diabetes outcomes. Clinicians should help patients set specific targets for dietary change and identify ways of achieving those goals.

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World Health Day

is celebrated on 7 April

to mark the anniversary of the founding of WHO in 1948.

The theme for 2013 is

high blood pressure.


About high blood pressure

High blood pressure – also known as raised blood pressure or hypertension – increases the risk of heart attacks, strokes and kidney failure. If left uncontrolled, high blood pressure can also cause blindness, irregularities of the heartbeat and heart failure. The risk of developing these complications is higher in the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes. One in three adults worldwide has high blood pressure. The proportion increases with age, from 1 in 10 people in their 20s and 30s to 5 in 10 people in their 50s. Prevalence of high blood pressure is highest in some low-income countries in Africa, with over 40% of adults in many African countries thought to be affected.

However, high blood pressure is both preventable and treatable. In some developed countries, prevention and treatment of the condition, together with other cardiovascular risk factors, has brought about a reduction in deaths from heart disease. The risk of developing high blood pressure can be reduced by:

  • reducing salt intake;
  • eating a balanced diet;
  • avoiding harmful use of alcohol;
  • taking regular physical activity;
  • maintaining a healthy body weight; and
  • avoiding tobacco use.

Goals: Greater awareness, healthy behaviours, improved detection, and enabling environments

The ultimate goal of World Health Day 2013 is to reduce heart attacks and strokes. Specific objectives of the campaign are:

  • to raise awareness of the causes and consequences of high blood pressure;
  • to provide information on how to prevent high blood pressure and related complications;
  • to encourage adults to check their blood pressure and to follow the advice of health-care professionals;
  • to encourage self-care to prevent high blood pressure;
  • to make blood pressure measurement affordable to all; and
  • to incite national and local authorities to create enabling environments for healthy behaviours.
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Beauty professionals including dermatologists, cosmeticians, make-up artists and bloggers can join our network and share with people in India and worldwide. Kindly note that our public content gets indexed well by search engines

Beauty professionals and businesses can get listed in the Spas and Salons India site and get found more by beauty conscious people in India. 

Below I share what I find about how to maintain and improve quality of facial skin.

Some comments might not directly relate to skin care. You can skip those comments.

For health and fitness professionals and businesses

Get found easily on Health Fitness India WEBSITE


Also, Stay Updated on GOOGLE+ FACEBOOK

When waiting for the face pack to settle and dry out on your face, ensure that you don’t smile, talk or move your face muscles as these may actually form wrinkles on your face!

12 foods to put on your face

Using smartphones can give you wrinkles as looking down at handheld devices and computers for countless hours develops a line around the neck and chin, experts have warned.

17 facts and myths about great skin

By increasing blood flow, exercise helps nourish skin cells and keep them vital. "Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to working cells throughout the body, including the skin," says dermatologist Ellen Marmur, MD, author of Simple Skin Beauty: Every Woman's Guide to a Lifetime of Healthy, Gorgeous Skin and associate professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. In addition to providing oxygen, blood flow also helps carry away waste products, including free radicals, from working cells. Contrary to some claims, exercise doesn't detoxify the skin. The job of neutralizing toxins belongs mostly to the  liver. "But by increasing blood flow, a bout of exercise helps flush cellular debris out of the system," Marmur tells WebMD. "You can think of it as cleansing your skin from the inside."

Exercise has also been shown to ease stress. "And by decreasing stress, some conditions that can be exacerbated by stress can show some improvement," says Brian B. Adams, MD, associate professor and director of the Sports Dermatology Clinic at the University of Cincinnati. Conditions that can improve when stress is reduced include acne and  eczema. Although researchers are still investigating the link between stress and skin, studies show that the sebaceous glands, which produce oil in the skin, are influenced by stress hormones. 

I thought of starting this blog post after the following experience. Like how a suggestion from a friend helped me, I wish that this blog post including the comments would be of value to people. Most of the following isn't related to improving facial skin quality (do see the comments below for skin related updates):

I started going to gym in my apartment complex. During evening, I went to salon in my apartment complex. The owner is my friend. I asked about (glycerin + gulab jal + lemon) mix to apply on face for several pimples that have come on my face. He said I should try it. He also said to drink Safi. I said that I'm looking for a new gym since not working out regularly in recent weeks has probably also brought several pimples. He said that why don't I go to the one in my apartment complex. I said that I'll check it out which I did and they've serviced the equipment only a week ago. It's fine and moreover it saves my time a lot which I can use for dance class that I've wanted to join for a long while. Also, I've always wanted to go to gym twice in a day with cardio in morning and weight training in evening which I can try to do now much better.
After checking out the gym, I went to the salon and asked my friend to come along with me to workout on which the person said that the society doesn't allow them for which I felt very upset. I said I would try to speak with society management on which the person said that it has already been discussed. I wish this person can exercise regularly. I'm very thankful to this person for the suggestion. I also keep giving this person my suggestions on marketing and other things. I wish that we can be of value to each other for the long term.

I also spoke to a yoga teacher who had held a class for ladies in the community center. He's trying to setup a power yoga class for males and which I'm looking forward to if the batch can be made.
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I read people posting online about urgently requiring blood. I'm interested to make Web / Online / Mobile - Application to Give and/or Receive Blood. I would do this when I've the resources for the same. If anyone has made any related applications then you're welcome to share here. 

I wonder what kind and level of IT projects do colleges make their students do because much useful applications could be made / initiated from those IT projects. If anyone's working to improve IT education in India then I would like to discuss with you.



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